conditions of drought stress. (30) Analysis of roots of E. angustifolia
dried at a range of temperatures between 23C and 60C indicated
that there were no significant changes in the alkamide content,
whereas 25% and 45% of the echinacoside content was lost at
30C and 60C, respectively. By contrast, roots of E. purpurea
at 18C in deep-freeze for 64 weeks were found to have lost 40%
of their alkamide content. An Ventolin Buy Online
aqueous alcoholic extract of E.
purpurea and its dried extract were stored at different tempera-
tures for seven months and then assayed for their alkamide and
phenylpropanoid content. The amount of the major alkamide
(dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide) in the
liquid preparation was not significantly affected by storage at
cichoric acid (2,3-dicaffeoyltartaric acid)
(cafartic acid = 2-caffeoyttartaric acid)
OR 1 OR 2
chlorogentc acid H
H H caffeoyl
H caffeoyl caffeoyl H
H caffeoyl H caffeoyl
caffeoyl caffeoyl H H
|| H'UH 2 U
echinacoside glucose (1*6)
caffeoyl- 6 -caff eoy I glucosy I ( 1 -- 6) rha m n osyl ( 1 ->-3)
Figure 1 Selected constituents of echinacea.
25C and 40C, whereas the cichoric acid content declined.
However, the reverse occurred for the dried extract when there Ventolin Buy Online was
a significant loss of alkamide at storage temperatures of 25C and
40C but no significant loss of cichoric acid content.
The effects of drying temperatures on the constituents of all
three echinacea species have been investigated. The results
showed that there Ventolin Buy Online
was an increase in cichoric acid for E. purpurea
and E. pallida. Furthermore, increased moisture content resulted
in higher concentrations of echinacoside for E. angustifolia and E.
pallida and of chlorogenic acid in E. angustifolia. The poly-
saccharide contents were significantly decreased by raised
moisture levels in the roots of E. angustifolia and E. pallida.
The presence of colchicine in commercial echinacea products in
the USA has been reported, although subsequent Ventolin Buy Online analysis of 17
commercial echinacea products purchased in pharmacies in
Chicago, USA, did not detect colchicine in any of the samples.
Detailed descriptions of E. purpurea root for use in botanical,
microscopic and macroscopic identification have been published,
along with qualitative and quantitative methods for the assess-
ment of E. purpurea root raw material.
Echinacea has a long history of medicinal use for a wide variety of
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